VALENCE, chief town of the department of Dôme, S.E. France, part of the ancient province of Dauphiné. The establishment of the Jewish community in Valence does not go back earlier than 1323; however, the decision of the council held in the town in 1248 that prohibited all relations between Christians and Jews may lead to the assumption that isolated Jews were living there at the time. This decision appears to have been decreed in the wake of the accusation of ritual murder of valreas in 1247 as a result of which the high constable of Valence had all the Jews on his lands imprisoned and their possessions confiscated. In 1441, when the community numbered 18 families, the bishop recalled the obligation of the Jews to wear the distinctive sign so that "guests be not regarded as citizens." In 1463, 14 Jews of Valence were ordered to pay a severe fine to the dauphin "for having practiced excessive usury and having spoken evilly of His Majesty…." In 1476 the same dauphin granted the Jews of Valence a new letter of protection; however, at the close of the century this community disappeared, as did the other communities of Dauphiné. At the beginning of World War II, there were about 50 Jewish families in Valence, half of whom were refugees from alsace . In the early 1970s, there were about 800 Jews in Valence, mainly of North African origin. -BIBLIOGRAPHY: Gross, Gal Jud, 204; A. Prudhomme, in: REJ, 9 (1884), 235–41; S. Grayzel, The Church and the Jews (19602), 234f.; P. de Torey, Catalogue des Acres du Dauphin Louis II (1899), passim; Z. Szajkowski, Analytical Franco-Jewish Gazetteer (1966), 186. (Bernhard Blumenkranz)

Encyclopedia Judaica. 1971.

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  • VALENCE — À toute représentation de la matière qui la suppose grenue, se rattachent deux genres d’intuitions, l’une privilégiant les formes, l’autre les forces. On peut, en effet, imaginer sous le mode de l’intensité les interactions entre les particules… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Valence CF — Valencia Club de Fútbol Généralités Surnom(s) …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Valence FC — Valence CF Valencia Club de Fútbol Généralités Surnom(s) …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Valence — may refer to:In molecules, atoms, or subatomic particles* Valence (chemistry) * Valence bond theory in chemistry * Valence shell in chemistry * Valence band in physics * Valence quarks (see quark model) in particle physics In other sciences*… …   Wikipedia

  • Valence — Valence …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Valence — puede referirse a varias localidades de Francia: Valence, comuna francesa y prefectura del departamento de Drôme; llamada también Valence sur Rhône y antiguamente en español Valencia de Francia. Valence, comuna francesa del departamento de… …   Wikipedia Español

  • Valence HB — Valence Handball Généralités …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Valence — Va lence, n. [From L. valens, entis, p. pr. of valere to have power, to be strong. See {Valiant}.] (Chem.) The degree of combining power of an atom (or radical) as shown by the number of atoms of hydrogen (or of other monads, as chlorine, sodium …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • valence — n. pl. valencies [vā′ləns] n. [LL valentia, worth, capacity < L, vigor < valens, prp. of valere, to be strong: see VALUE] Chem. 1. the capacity of an element or radical to combine with another to form molecules, as measured by the number of …   English World dictionary

  • Valence —   [va lãs], Stadt in Südfrankreich, Verwaltungssitz des Départements Drôme, an der mittleren Rhône unterhalb der Isèremündung, 63 400 Einwohner; Bischofssitz; Kunstmuseum; landwirtschaftliches Handelszentrum in einem Obstbaugebiet; Maschinen und… …   Universal-Lexikon

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